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Management Education

Research Topics

A Consciousness-Based Approach to Management Education for Integrity 

  • Heaton, D., Schachinger, E. & Laszlo, C. (2016). Consciousness-development for responsible management education. In R. Sunley, & J. Leigh (Eds), Educating for responsible management: Putting theory into practice (pp. 211-232). Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf.
  • Abstract: The Principles of Responsible Management Education (PRME)​ call for universities to commit to the purpose of developing “the capabilities of students to be future generators of sustainable value for business and society at large and to work for an inclusive and sustainable global economy​.​ The thesis of this chapter is that such capabilities depend, at least in part, upon a dimension of psychological differences which researchers have called consciousness development. Therefore, the incorporation of practices which cultivate consciousness development may play a critical role in actualizing the purpose of PRME. We contend that at its root, Responsible Management stems from a shift to a deeper level of our humanity where we realize our connectedness to our highest selves, and through that, our connectedness to others and to nature. By systematically cultivating our consciousness of connectedness, we can accelerate the evolution of management education and societal practice toward the creation of a thriving society.​ T​he Consciousness-Based Education (CBE) approach propos​es​​​​ Transcendental Meditation (TM) as a means for direct experience of a consciousness of connectedness. Measurable increases in brain functioning have been found in practitioners of TM, together with subjective reports of expanded consciousness. CBE has also been found to lead to postconventional levels of self or ego development, which in turn correlates with seeing the world in systems terms and with higher environmental leadership behaviors.
  • Heaton, D. (2016). An innovative approach to cultivate responsible next generation leaders: Transcendental Meditation in management education. In S. Tiwari and L. Nafees (Eds.), Innovative management education pedagogies for preparing next-generation leaders (pp. 139-160). Hersey, PA: IGI Global.
  • Abstract: The next generation of business leaders aspires to integrate financial success with social and environmental responsibility. A fundamental enabler of more responsible business practice is a change of consciousness toward the compassion, comprehension, and courage needed to conduct business in a way that leads to sustainability and thriving. This chapter presents the system of Consciousness-Based Education (CBE), which incorporates the Transcendental Meditation program. CBE as practiced at Maharishi University of Management is an innovative approach of management education which integrates experiential, intellectual, pedagogical, and environmental features all aimed at developing the consciousness of students. Empirical evidence on the effects of this educational approach includes cognitive, moral, and emotional development and brain integration. This growth of consciousness gives rise to responsible business leadership to create shared value that integrates the interests of shareholders and stakeholders.
  • Heaton, D., Travis, F. &  Subramaniam, R. (2012). A Consciousness-Based approach to management education for integrity. In C. Wankel and A. Stachowicz-Stanusch (Eds.),  Handbook of Research on Teaching Ethics in Business and Management Education(pp. 66-79). Hershey PA: IGI Global.
  • Abstract: Management education is seeking creative innovations that can have a real impact on integrity. In this chapter we present our recent research on the relationship between integrity in the brain, as measured by the Brain Integration Scale, and measures of moral reasoning. Further, we summarize research indicating longitudinal growth in coherent brain functioning, intelligence, personality maturity, moral development, and psychological health through the Consciousness-Based approach to management education practiced at Maharishi University of Management. This research supports a potentially innovative approach to management education that does not just address education for integrity on the level of ethical theories or values, but demonstrably transforms the neurophysiology, leading to changes in moral reasoning and heightened effectiveness of performance.

Unified Field Based Sustainable Business. Panel presentation in Sustainability in management education: In search of transformative approaches and outcomes 

  • Heaton, D. (2011). Unified Field Based Sustainable Business. Panel presentation in Sustainability in management education: In search of transformative approaches and outcomes. Professional Development Workshop, ONE Division, Academy of Management Annual Meetings, 2011, San Antonio, Texas.
  • Abstract: Maharishi University has developed a conceptual model for teaching sustainable business which shows students the relationships among the intelligence of nature, individual development, societal influences, sustainable business practices, and holistic outcomes. Experience of the Unified Field of Natural Law through the Transcendental Meditation program promotes those qualities of individual development which are the foundation for holistic success in business management. Developed individuals functioning as communities influence business organizations toward more sustainable principles, practices and performance. Sustainable organizations achieve triple-bottom-line outcomes — fulfilling economic, social and environmental responsibilities.

Higher Education for Higher Consciousness: Maharishi University of Management as a Model for Spirituality in Management Education 

  • Schmidt-Wilk, J., Heaton, D. P., and Steingard. D. (2000). Higher Education for Higher Consciousness: Maharishi University of Management as a Model for Spirituality in Management Education. Journal of Management Education, Special Issue on Spirituality in Contemporary Work: Its Place, Space, and Role in Management Education, 25 (5), 580-611.
  • Abstract: The system of education at Maharishi University of Management provides a model for management educators seeking to understand and teach spirituality. It locates Transcendental Consciousness, “pure spirituality,” at the basis of the universe and the human mind, experienced through the Transcendental Meditation® (TM) program. Disciplines are taught as expressions of one unified field of consciousness. This integrated approach develops students who express “applied spirituality,” acting for the positive transformation of the quality of life for all. Research on educational outcomes at MUM gives evidence of cognitive, affective, and moral development in students. The authors offer suggestions for educators at other institutions.

A quantum metaphor of organizations: Implications for business education 

  • Schmidt-Wilk, J. & Heaton, D. P. (Fall, 1999). A quantum metaphor of organizations: Implications for business education. Business Education Technology Journal. 1,1 (pp. 27-30).
  • Abstract: The quantum metaphor has begun to be applied in management, contrasting with metaphors of the organization derived from classical physics. Metaphorically looking at organizations as quantum mechanical rather than classical phenomena shifts our attention from fixed roles to emergent possibilities, from discrete lines of authority to evolving networks of communication, and from mechanistic control to self-organization. As this shift is occurring in business practice, business education needs to adopt new perspectives and new educational technologies to enliven in students the characteristics described by the quantum metaphor.

Conference Proceedings  

Finding Principles of Leadership in Literature: Exercises using the Ramayan of Valmiki 

  • Heaton, D. P., Schmidt-Wilk, J., & Langstaff, J. (2000). Finding Principles of Leadership in Literature: Exercises using the Ramayan of Valmiki. OBTC 2000 Theme Resource Guide. Organizational Behavior Teaching Conference, Carrolton, GA, June 6-10.

Finding Principles of Leading and Teaching in the Ancient Vedic Literature 

  • Heaton, D. P., Schmidt-Wilk, J., & Langstaff, J. (2000). Finding Principles of Leading and Teaching in the Ancient Vedic Literature. In Jerry Biberman and Abbass Alkhafaji (Eds.) Business Research Yearbook: Global Perspectives in Business, VII. (pp. 881-885). International Academy of Business Disciplines. McNaughton & Gunn, Saline, MI.

Researching Spiritual Development, Wholeness of Life, in Business Settings 

  • Langstaff, J., Schmidt-Wilk, J., Heaton, D. P., Herriott, E. (2000). Researching Spiritual Development, Wholeness of Life, in Business Settings. In Jerry Biberman and Abbass Alkhafaji (Eds.) Business Research Yearbook: Global Perspectives in Business, VII, (pp. 891-895). International Academy of Business Disciplines. McNaughton & Gunn, Saline, MI.

Management curricula for cultivating advanced human development 

  • Heaton, D. P. & Langstaff, J. (1995). Management curricula for cultivating advanced human development. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Business/Economic Teaching Conference. November 12. Chicago, IL.

Wholeness in business education: Teaching Techniques from Maharishi International University 

  • Dillbeck, S. L., Heaton, D. P., and Kirouac, T. C. (1991). Wholeness in business education: Teaching Techniques from Maharishi International University. In D. Marcic (Ed.) Midwest Business Teaching Conference, 1991 Proceedings. April 25-26. 60-65.

Leadership skills development courses: The value of using great literature cases 

  • Langstaff, J. & Heaton, D. P. (1995). Leadership skills development courses: The value of using great literature cases. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Business/Economic Teaching Conference. November 12. Chicago, IL.

Solving the problem of fragmented knowledge: Wholeness in business education 

  • Dillbeck, S., Heaton, D. P. & Kirouac, T. (1991). Solving the problem of fragmented knowledge: Wholeness in business education. Proceedings of the 1991 Midwest Business Teaching Conference, Bloomington, MN.

The use of Unified Field Charts as conceptual maps in business education 

  • Hoffman, J. W. & Baxter, M. J. (1990). The use of Unified Field Charts as conceptual maps in business education. In B. Kuhle, (Ed.) Midwest Business Teaching Conference, 1990 Papers and Proceedings. 57-62.

Promoting adult psychological development: Implications for management education 

  • Alexander, C. N., Heaton, D. P., and Chandler, H. M. (1990). Promoting adult psychological development: Implications for management education. Proceedings of the Association of Management, Human Resource Management, Vol. 2, 133-137.

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