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Baxter, Michael James
Consciousness, conscience, and conscientiousness: self- development, moral development, and organizational citizenship

Order No. 9328459

Arguments are presented from the point of view of both modern science and Maharishi's Vedic Science in support of a relationship between moral development and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). A theoretical model is proposed, using principled morality as a dispositional determinant of OCB and value-based commitment as a moderator.

The model is tested using a sample of 126 full-time employees from various organizations, recruited from undergraduate and graduate college classes in two geographic locations. All subjects were given Rest's (1986) Defining Issues Test (DIT) to evaluate the degree of principled moral reasoning applied in problem-solving, and O'Reilly and Chatman's (1990) Normative Commitment scale to evaluate the degree of congruence between individual and organizational values. Supervisors for these employees were then asked to provide assessments in terms of five classes of behaviors that represent organizational citizenship: altruism, courtesy, civic virtue, sportsmanship, and conscientiousness (Podsakoff, MacKenzie, Moorman, & Fetter, 1990).

Results indicate no direct support for the a priori hypotheses. However, exploratory analysis reveals significant positive relationships for civic virtue, conscientiousness and courtesy in subsets of the data, indicating qualified support for the hypotheses. In addition, a highly significant negative relationship is found for courtesy in several data subsets.

Current theories of the psychological effects of underemployment are applied to the interpretation of these negative findings. In general, the mixed results of exploratory analysis suggest that there may exist both simple and complex links between individual moral standards and performance in business.

Implications for the findings are discussed, with the intention of simultaneously promoting both business ethics and performance. Source: DAI, 54, no. 07A, (1993): 2645

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