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De Armond, David Lee
Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on psychological, physiological, behavioral and organizational consequences of stress in managers and executives

Order No. 9633808

Although behavioral stress management programs are commonplace in corporations, stress remains a major problem. Accordingly there is a lack of agreement about what stress reduction methods, if any, are effective. Moreover, there has been a lack of empirical research examining the value of such programs for managers or executives. A three-month prospective study examined the effects of the Transcendental Meditation® technique on stress-related self-report, physiological and observer measures. The subjects were 76 executives, managers and other professionals of managerial rank in a mid-sized U.S. medical equipment developer and manufacturer.

Subjects who elected to learn the TM technique were compared to controls from the same organization and similar in age, education level, race, marital status, hours worked per week, job type and level of responsibility in the organization. The experimental attrition rate was 1%. The TM group improved significantly relative to controls on measures of mental health (p =.04), perceived stress (p =.01), physical complaints (p =.02), vitality (p =.002), healthful behaviors (p =.03), serum cholesterol (p =.03) and a composite measure of observer-rated contribution to the organization (p =.01), as indicated by planned contrasts utilizing analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The effect sizes of the TM technique were comparable to those found in previous research involving non-managers. The findings are further supported by evidence from seven prior meta- analyses that the TM program has effect sizes two or three times as large as various other methods used to reduce stress or to unfold human potential, even in randomized controlled studies where the results could not be attributed to self- selection. Source: DAI, 57, no. 06B (1996): p. 4068

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