Appendix A.

Summary of Research on Maharishi International University

Environment

Author(s) Dependent Variable Design Type Independent Variable Actual Measure Findings
1. Bandy & Lanford (1984). Violent & property crimes in the District of Columbia.   4 Days when more than 400people were practicing the TM-Sidhi program collectively . Secondary analysis of publicly available daily statistics, 1980-1983. On days when the Super Radiance threshold for Washington DC was exceeded, there was a significant reduction in violent crime and property crimes in the District.
2. Cavanaugh (1987); Cavanaugh & King 1988). Okun's "Misery Index" (combining the national inflation and unemployment levels) in the U.S and Canada.   4 Weeks when Super Radiance threshold (approximately l600 people practicing Maharishi's TM & TM-Sidhi program) was exceeded at MIU. U.S. & Canadian gov't. unemployment & inflation statistics. The authors found a highly significant correlation between the numbers practicing the TM-Sidhi program at MIU & the sum of the monthly inflation & unemployment rates for both Canada and the U.S. between April 1979 and January 1987.
3. M.C. Dillbeck (in press). Deaths due to violence in the U.S. (homicides, suicides, & traffic fatalities).   4 Days when U.S. Super Radiance threshold was exceeded, & continuous analyses. U.S. Public Health Service data and Dept. of Transportation statistics. The index of violent fatalities went down with increasing numbers practicing Maharishi's TM and TM-Sidhi Program collectively at MIU.
4. M.C. Dillbeck, Larimore, & Wallace (1984). Motor vehicle fatalities in the US   4 Days when U.S. Super Radiance threshold was exceeded. U.S. Dept. of Transportation statistics. Auto fatalities were reduced on days when the Super Radiance number was exceeded.
5. Lanford, Dixon, & Reeks (1984). Incidence of homicides in Washington, DC.   4 Weeks when Super Radiance threshold for Washington, DC was reached. Secondary analysis of publicly available weekly statistics, 1980-1983. Homicides decreased by 22% (p < .02) in weeks during which the size of the group practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi program collectively was 400 or greater.
6. Orme-Johnson & M.C. Dillbeck (1987); Orme-Johnson, Gelderloos, & Dillbeck (1988). Composite index of quality of life in the United States.   1 Maharishi Effect Index: Composite index of numbers practicing TM & TM-Sidhi program at MIU & percentage practicing the TM technique throughout the U.S. Secondary analysis of publicly available annual data reflecting quality of life (1960 1984). The improvement in quality of life in the U.S. was proportional to the rise in the Maharishi Effect Index (r = .8).
* Orme-Johnson & M.C. Dillbeck (1987). Dow Jones industrial average/ Commerce Dept. "Leading Indicators."   4 Days when Super Radiance threshold of square root of 1% of the U.S. population was reached at MIU. Daily data on Dow Jones (1979-1985); monthly data on the Leading Indicators (1949- 1985). The Dow Jones industrial average increased by a mean .92 points per day (p = .05) the day after days when the threshold was reached. Leading Indicators significantly increased the month after months in which Super Radiance threshold was reached.

BODY AND BEHAVIOR

Author(s) Dependent Variable Design Type Independent Variable Actual Measure Findings
7. Wallace, Orme- Johnson, Mills, M.C. Dillbeck, & Jacobe (1983). Flexibility of the nervous system.   3 Participation in the student TM-Sidhi course at MIU. Recovery ratio for the paired Hoffman reflex. At four out of the five latency intervals, males in the experimental group significantly improved (p <.05 top < .01) over a 3-month period. Recovery ratio of the paired Hoffman reflex was later (Wallace, Orme-Johnson, Mills, & Dillbeck, 1984) positively correlated with grade point average.
8. Ormes-Johnson (1982). Fonctional integration of the brain.   3 Participation in the student TM-Sidhi course at MIU. EEG coherence in the theta & alpha frequencies measured during the TM technique. Compared with controls, those participating in the TM-Sidhi course increased on the dependent variable in the 4 pairs of EEG leads measured. EEG frontal coherence was later positively correlated to math achievement (Nidich, Jones, Abrams, Orme-Johnson, & Wallace, in press).

MIND: SENSES, DESIRES AND THINKING

Author(s) Dependent Variable Design Type Independent Variable Actual Measure Findings
9. M.C. Dillbeck, Orme-Johnson, Wallace (1981). Efficiency of concept learning.   3 Participation in the students' TM-Sidhi course. Computerized concept learning task after Bruner, Goodnow, & Austin, 1956. Students who took the TM-Sidhi course improved their efficiency of concept learning, compared with controls (p < .05).
10. M.C. Dillbeck, Assimakis, Raymondi, Orme-Johnson, & Row (1986). Field independence (cognitive style).   2 Institution Group administered embedded figures test. MIU students significantly improved from freshman to senior years (p < .005).
11. Jones (1989b). Achievement levels on skills and knowledge of a general education.   1 Institution The Academic Profile (Educational Testing Service). Native English speakers scored in the 93rd and the 91st percentile on the two versions of the Academic Profile, a widely used test of general education.
* Orme-Johnson (1982). Creativity: Verbal fluency and flexibility.   3 Participation in the students' TM-Sidhi course. Torrance Test of Creative Thinking. Students participating in the course made significant improvements when compared with meditating controls who did not participate (p < .02).

MIND: INTELLECT

Author(s) Dependent Variable Design Type Independent Variable Actual Measure Findings
* Cranson, Alexander, Orme-Johnson, Jones, & Gackenbach (1989). Speed of mental processing.   3 Institution Hick's choice reaction time. MIU students improved their performance compared with controls, who did not change (p < .005).
12-14. Jones (1989a); Cranson et al. (1989) M.C. Dillbeck et al. (1986); Aron et al (1981). Non-verbal fluid intelligence.  2, 3 Institution Cattel Culture Fair Intelligence Test; Raven's Progressive Matrices. MIU students increased in their level of intelligence over 1 (Jones), 2.5 (Cranson et al.), and 4 years (Dillbeck et al.; Aron et al.) as compared with normative data as well as with controls from another institution (Cranson et al.) (p < .001 top < .005).
15. Nidich & Orme-Johnson (1982). Moral reasoning.   l Participation in the TM and TM-Sidhi program: Rest's Defining Issues Test. Meditating MIU students displayed a higher percentage of responses demonstrating principled reasoning than did non-meditators or those about to start the TM technique. Those practicing the TM-Sidhi program at MIU showed a rate still higher than the meditators.

MIND: EGO

Author(s) Dependent Variable Design Type Independent Variable Actual Measure Findings
16. Gelderloos (1987). Well-Being and integration.  1,3 Institution Herman's self-investigation interviews. MIU students scored significantly higher at pretest on all dimensions of psychological well-being and integration and made significantly greater gains over 9 months in autonomy, spirituality, creativity, well-being, and integration, as compared with controls from another university.
17. Orme-Johnson & Duck (1977). Personality profile.   l Institution Personal Orientation lnventory. MIU students were significantly higher (p < .05) than a reference group of other college students on the subscales of time-competence, inner-directedness, self-actualizing values, sponta-neity, self-referral, synergy, acceptance of aggression, and capacity for intimate contact. Their profile was similar to a reference group of self-actualized people.

CONSCIOUSNESS AS A WHOLE

Author(s) Dependent Variable Design Type Independent Variable Actual Measure Findings
* Cranson et al. Inner wakefulness while asleep.   3 Institution Self-report of frequency of witnessing during sleep. MIU students showed increased frequency of "witnessing" nighttime sleep (p < .001) compared with controls. Witnessing sleep, according to Maharishi's Vedic Science, is an indicator of growth of higher states of consciousness.

* Findings from studies already cited above

KEY to Design Types:
1 = Cross-sectional or correlation study. 2 = Pre-post with normative data.
3 = Pre-post with control group. 4 = Time series (Box-Jenkins ARIMA impact assessment).


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