Institute for Natural Medicine & Prevention Research    
Research at a glance

NIH-Funded Scientific Research on Transcendental Meditation

The National Institutes of Health has granted more than $24 million over the past 20 years to study the effects of the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program and other related programs on cardiovascular disease. The following is a summary of findings of the published research performed by the Institute of Natural Medicine and Prevention, as well as a listing of universities where recent studies have been conducted.


Stress Reduction in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease (American Heart Association Journal, November 2012)
A selected mind–body intervention, the TM program, significantly reduced risk for mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke in coronary heart disease patients. These changes were associated with lower blood pressure and psychosocial stress factors. Therefore, this practice may be clinically useful in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Full Article


Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Substance Use among University Students (Cardiology Research and Practice, January 2011)
A randomized wait-list controlled trial ( 𝑁 = 2 9 5 university students) of the effects of the Transcendental Meditation program was conducted in an urban setting. Substance use was assessed by self-report at baseline and 3 months later. For smoking and illicit drug use, there were no significant differences between conditions. For alcohol use, sex X intervention condition interactions were significant; TM instruction lowered drinking rates among male but not female students. TM instruction could play a valuable role in reducing alcohol use among male university students. Limitations are noted, along with suggestions for further research. Full Article


A Self-referential Default Brain State: Patterns of Coherence, Power, and eLORETA Sources during Eyes-closed Rest and Transcendental Meditation Practice (Cognitive Processing, February 2010)
Greater activation in areas that overlap the DMN during TM practice suggests that meditation practice may lead to a foundational or ‘ground’ state of cerebral functioning that may underlie eyes-closed rest and more focused cognitive processes. Full Article


A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Blood Pressure, Psychological Distress, and Coping in Young Adults (American Journal of Hypertension, October 2009)
This is the first RCT to demonstrate that a selected mind–body intervention, the TM program, decreased BP in association with decreased psychological distress, and increased coping in young adults at risk for hypertension. This mind–body program may reduce the risk for future development of hypertension in young adults. Full Article


Reduced Blood Pressure (Current Hypertension Reports, December 2007)
This meta-analysis of 17 published studies from the medical literature (selected from over 100 published studies for their careful experimental design utilizing randomized controlled trials) reported on the effects of stress reduction techniques on elevated blood pressure in about 1000 subjects total. The treatments employed included simple biofeedback, relaxation-assisted biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, stress management training, and the Transcendental Meditation program. The results of statistical analyses showed that none of the first 4 treatment approaches demonstrated statistically significant reductions in elevated blood pressure, while the Transcendental Meditation program showed both significant clinical and statistical reductions in blood pressure. Full Article


Improved Quality of Life for Congestive Heart Failure Patients (Ethnicity and Disease, March 2007)
This study examined the effects of conventional health education and the practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique on measures of heart failure severity and quality of life in a randomized controlled trial of twenty-three older African American men and women with congestive heart failure (CHF). The results indicate that the use of the TM technique may be effective in improving the quality of life and functional capacity of heart failure patients. Full Article


Reduced Metabolic Syndrome (American Medical Association’s Archives of Internal Medicine, June 2006)
This 16-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 103 coronary heart patients found that the Transcendental Meditation technique improved blood pressure and insulin resistance components of the metabolic syndrome as well as cardiac autonomic nervous system tone compared with a control group receiving health education. These results suggest that the TM technique may modulate the physiological response to stress and improve coronary heart disease risk factors. Full Article


Enhanced Longevity (American Journal of Cardiology, May 2005)
This study was a first-of-its-kind, long-term, randomized trial. It evaluated the death rates of 202 men and women, average age 71, who had mildly elevated blood pressure. Subjects in the study participated in the Transcendental Meditation program; behavioral techniques, such as mindfulness or progressive muscle relaxation; or health education. The study tracked subjects for up to 18 years. The study found that the TM program reduced death rates by 23%. Full Article


Reduced Blood Pressure and Use of Hypertensive Medication (American Journal of Hypertension, January 2005)
This long-term, clinical trial evaluated 150 men and women, average age 49, with stage I hypertension (average blood pressure 142/95 mm Hg). Blood pressure in the Transcendental Meditation group reduced by nearly 6 mm diastolic pressure and by 3 mm systolic pressure. In contrast, blood pressure in the progressive muscle relaxation group and conventional health education classes reduced by 3 mm diastolic pressure, with no change in systolic pressure. Use of hypertensive medication was also found to significantly decrease in the TM group in comparison with controls. Full Article


Reduced Blood Pressure in At-risk Teens (American Journal of Hypertension, April, 2004) This $1.5 million, four-year, randomized, controlled study found that adolescents at risk for heart disease experienced decreased blood pressure as a result of the daily practice of Transcendental Meditation.


Reduced Atherosclerosis (American Journal of Cardiology, April 2002)
This study found that subjects with multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease substantially reduced atherosclerosis through a multi-modality treatment program derived from a system of traditional medicine that included the daily practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique. In the study, 57 adults were randomly assigned into three treatment groups. After one year, the ceratoid intima-media thickness decreased significantly more in the subjects who were randomly assigned to the TM group.


Regression of Atherosclerosis (Stroke, March 2000)
A well-designed, randomized, controlled clinical trial found that the daily practice of the Transcendental Meditation technique was associated with or reduced narrowing of the arteries in the heart and brain in high-risk hypertensive adults, thereby decreasing the risk of heart attack and stroke. After six to nine months, carotid artery wall thickness decreased in the TM group compared to matched control subjects. This regression was similar to that achieved by some lipid-lowering drugs and extensive lifestyle changes. Full Article


Relaxation of Blood Vessels (Psychosomatic Medicine, July 1999 and January 1999)
A study of middle-aged adults reported that the Transcendental Meditation technique reduced blood pressure by reducing constriction of the blood vessels (vasoconstriction), thereby decreasing the risk of heart disease. A separately published study on adolescents with high normal blood pressure found that randomly assigned subjects who practiced the TM technique exhibited greater decreases in resting blood pressure, vascular resistance, and stress reactivity from pre-to post-treatment, compared to controls.


Reduced Blood Pressure: Comparisons with Other Procedures (Hypertension, November 1995 and August 1996)
Clinical studies of older African Americans found that the TM program was 1) as effective as antihypertensive drugs in reducing blood pressure, 2) twice as effective as progressive muscle relaxation in lowering hypertension, and, 3) significantly effective in reducing blood pressure for both men and women in all five major risk categories, including obesity, high alcohol use, low exercise levels, psychological stress and high salt intake.



Other Universities Participating in the NIH-funded Research

University of Pennsylvania
Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on Functional Capacity and Quality of Life of African Americans with Congestive Heart Failure
Published in Ethnicity and Disease, Winter 2007 Full Article

Cedars-Sinai Hospital, Los Angeles
The effects of Transcendental Meditation on cardiovascular disease in coronary heart disease patients with metabolic syndrome
Published in the American Medical Association’s Archives of Internal Medicine, July 2006 Full Article

University of California, Irvine
The effects of Transcendental Meditation on brain functioning, stress, and pain as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Published in NeuroReport, August 2006 Full Article

Howard University School of Medicine, Washington, D.C.
Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta
The effects of Transcendental Meditation in older African American women at risk for heart disease
Findings presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology, March 2006

University of Iowa
The effects of the multimodality approach of the TM technique and Ayurvedic herbal preparations on coronary disease
Findings presented at the annual meeting of the American College of Cardiology, March 2006

The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
(1) A study on the effects of Transcendental Meditation on the prevention of hypertension in African Americans; and
(2) A study on the effects of Transcendental Meditation on morbidity and mortality in African Americans with heart disease.

Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles
(1) A study on the mechanisms of atherosclerosis—the effects of Transcendental Meditation on the sympathetic nervous system and the functioning of the arterial endothelium in African Americans; and
(2) The effects of Transcendental Meditation on carotid atherosclerosis.
Published in the American Heart Association’s Stroke, March 2000 Full Article


More Selected Publications    

Many of these published studies have received wide-scale media coverage in hundreds of newspaper, magazine articles, and television and radio shows.

Rutledge, T, Nidich, S, Schneider, R, Mills, P, Salerno, J, Heppner, P, Gomez, M and Rainforth, M, Design and Rationale of a Comparative Effectiveness Trial Evaluating Transcendental Meditation against Established Therapies for PTSD Contemporary Clinical Trials, 2014. in press.

Walton, K, Olshansky, B, Helene, E and Schneider, R, Trials of Maharishi Ayurveda for cardiovascular disease: A pooled analysis of outcome studies with carotid intima-media thickness. Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014. 4(1): p. 615-623. Free Article

Rutledge, T, Mills, PJ and Schneider, RH, Meditation Intervention Reviews. JAMA Internal Medicine, 2014. 174(7): p. 1193. Full Article

Schneider R.H., Response to AHA Scientific Statement on Alternative Methods and BP: Evidence for Upgrading the Ratings for Transcendental Meditation. Hypertension 2013; HYPERTENSIONAHA.113.02115 published online October 14, 2013.
Letter

Schneider R, Grim C, Rainforth M, Kotchen T, Nidich S, Gaylord-King C, Salerno J, Morley Kotchen J, Alexander C. Stress Reduction in the Secondary Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation and Health Education in Blacks. Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes. 5:750-758, 2012  Abstract 
Free Article

Orme-Johnson D., Barnes V., Schneider R.H. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Clinical Events, in Heart & Mind: the Practice of Cardiac Psychology, second edition, R. Allan & J. Fisher, Eds. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC, 2012.  Book

Haaga D., Grosswald S., Gaylord-King C., Rainforth M., Tanner M., Travis F., Nidich S., Schneider R.H. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Substance Use Among University Students. Cardiology Research and Practice, 2011:537101, 2011 Abstract  Free Article

Travis F., Haaga A., Hagelin J., Tanner M., Arenander A., Nidich S., Gaylord-King C., Grosswald S., Rainforth M., Schneider R.H. A Self-referential Default Brain State: Patterns of Coherence, Power, and eLORETA Sources During Eyes-closed Rest and Transcendental Meditation Practice. Cognitive Processing, 11:21–30, 2010.  Abstract   Full Article

Nidich S., Rainforth M., Haaga D., Hagelin J., Salerno J., Travis F., Tanner M., Gaylord- King C., Grosswald S., Schneider R. H. A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Blood Pressure, Psychological Distress, and Coping in Young Adults. American Journal of Hypertension, 22(12):1326-31, 2009  Abstract  Full Article

Nidich S., Fields J., Rainforth M., Pomerantz R., Cella D., Kristeller J., Salerno J., Schneider R.H. A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Transcendental Meditation on Quality of Life in Older Breast Cancer Patients. Integrative Cancer Therapies, 8(3):228-234, 2009. Abstract   Full Article

Tanner M., Travis F., Gaylord-King C., Haaga D., Grosswald S., Schneider R.H. The Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Mindfulness.  Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65(6):574-89, 2009. Abstract  Full Article

Travis F., Haaga D., Hagelin J., Tanner M., Nidich S., Gaylord-King C., Grosswald S., Rainforth M., Schneider R.H. Effects of Transcendental Meditation Practice on Brain Functioning and Stress Reactivity in College Students. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 71(2):170-6, 2009. Abstract  Full Article

Rainforth M., Schneider R.H., Nidich S., King C., Salerno J., Anderson J. Stress Reduction Programs in Patients with Elevated Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Current Hypertension Reports, 9(6):520-8, 2007.  Abstract  Free Article

Jayadevappa R., Johnson J., Bloom B., Nidich S., Desa S., Chhatre S., Razian D., Schneider R.H. Effectiveness of Transcendental Meditation on Functional Capacity and Quality of Life of African Americans with Congestive Heart Failure: A Randomized Control Study. Ethnicity and Disease, 17:72-77, 2007.  Abstract   Free Article

Orme-Johnson D., Schneider R.H., Son Y., Nidich S., Cho Z. Neuroimaging of Meditation’s Effect on Brain Reactivity to Pain.  NeuroReport, 17(12):1359-63, 2006.  Abstract  Free Article

Schneider R.H., Walton K., Salerno J., Nidich S. Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Health Promotion with the Transcendental Meditation Program and Maharishi Consciousness-Based Health Care.  Ethnicity & Disease 16(3 Suppl 4):S4-15-26, 2006. Abstract  Free Article

Paul-Labrador M., Polk D., Dwyer J., Velasquez I., Nidich S., Rainforth M., Schneider R.H., Bairey Merz C. Effects of Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation on Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects with Coronary Heart Disease.  Archives of Internal Medicine, 166:1218-1224, 2006. Free Article

Walton K., Schneider R.H., Salerno J., Nidich S. Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease 3: Clinical and Policy Implications of Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program.  Behavioral Medicine, 30(4):173-83, 2005. Abstract  Full Article             

Schneider R.H., Alexander C., Staggers F., Rainforth M., Salerno J., Hartz A., Arndt S., Barnes V., Nidich S. Long-term Effects of Stress Reduction on Mortality in Persons ≥ 55 Years of Age with Systemic Hypertension.  American Journal of Cardiology, 95:1060-1064, 2005. Abstract  Free Article

Schneider R.H., Alexander C., Staggers F., Orme-Johnson D., Rainforth M., Salerno J., Sheppard W., Castillo-Richmond A., Barnes V., Nidich S.  A Randomized Controlled Trial of Stress Reduction in African Americans Treated for Hypertension Over One Year.  American Journal of Hypertension, 18:88-98, 2005.  Abstract  Free Article

Nidich S., Schneider R.H., Nidich R., Foster G., Sharma H., Salerno J., Goodman R., Alexander C. Effect of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Intellectual Development in Community-dwelling Older Adults.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17:217-226, 2005.

Nidich S., Nidich R., Sands D., Schneider R.H., Sharma H., Barnes V., Jossang S., Smith D. Maharishi Rejuvenation Program and Speed of Processing Ability. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17:565-570, 2005.

Kondwani K., Schneider R.H., Alexander C., Sledge C., Staggers F., Clayborne B., Sheppard W., Rainforth M., Krouse L., Orme-Johnson D.  Left Ventricular Mass Regression with the Transcendental Meditation Technique and a Health Education Program in Hypertensive African Americans. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17:181-200, 2005.

Schneider R.H., Alexander C., Salerno J., Rainforth M., Nidich S. Stress Reduction in the Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease in High Risk Underserved Populations: A Review of Controlled Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17:159-180, 2005.

Barnes V., Schneider R.H., Alexander C., Rainforth M., Salerno J., Kondwani K., Staggers F. Impact of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Mortality in Older African Americans with Hypertension — Eight-year Follow Up.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17:201-216, 2005.

Walton K., Schneider R. H., Nidich S. Review of Controlled Clinical Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program and Cardiovascular Disease: Risk Factors, Morbidity, and Mortality. Cardiology in Review, 12(5):262-266, 2004. Abstract  Free Article

Walton K., Fields J., Levitsky D., Harris D., Pugh N., Schneider R.H. Lowering Cortisol and CVD Risk in Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study Using the Transcendental Meditation Program.  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032:211-5, 2004. Abstract  Full Article       

Nidich S., Grandinetti A., Schneider R.H., Chang H., Ricketts L., Toomey M.  The Transcendental Meditation Program and Cardiovascular Disease in Native Hawaiians. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55:144-145, 2003. Full Article

Nidich S., Schneider R.H., Fields J., Rainforth M. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Emotional Well-being in Elderly Breast Cancer Patients: Preliminary Results from a Randomized Controlled Study.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55:153-154, 2003. Full Article

Nidich R., Nidich S., Schneider R.H. The Transcendental Meditation Program and Quality of Life in Breast Cancer Patients: A Feasibility Study.  Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 55:153, 2003.  Full Article

Schneider R.H., Salerno J., Nidich S. Future Trends in Use — Focus in a Traditional System of Natural Medicine.  In Cherniak N., Cherniak P. (Eds.)  Alternative Medicine and the Elderly, New York:  Springer-Verlag, 73-87, 2003.

Walton K., Schneider R.H., Nidich S., Salerno J., Nordstrom C., Bairey Merz C.  Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease 2: Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation Program in Treatment and Prevention.  Behavioral Medicine, 28:106-123, 2002. Abstract   Free Article

Bairey Merz C., Dwyer J., Nordstrom C., Walton K., Salerno J., Schneider R.H.  Psychosocial Stress and Cardiovascular Disease, Part I: Pathophysiological Links. Behavioral Medicine, 27:141-146, 2002. Abstract   Free Article

Fields J., Walton K., Schneider R.H., Nidich S., Pomerantz R., Suchdev P., Castillo-Richmond A., Payne K., Clark E., Rainforth M.  Effect of a Multimodality Natural Medicine Program on Carotid Atherosclerosis in Older Subjects: A Pilot Trial of Maharishi Vedic Medicine.  American Journal of Cardiology, 89:952-958, 2002.  Abstract   Full Article 

Schneider R.H., Alexander C., Salerno J., Robinson D., Fields J., Nidich S. Disease Prevention and Health Promotion in the Aging with a Traditional System of Natural Medicine: Maharishi Vedic Medicine (MVM). Journal of Aging and Health, 14(1):57-78, 2002. Abstract  Free Article

Schneider R.H., Castillo‑Richmond A., Alexander C., Meyers H., Kaushik V., Aranguri C., Norris K., Haney C., Rainforth M., Calderon R., Nidich S.  Behavioral Treatment of Hypertensive Heart Disease in African Americans: Rationale and Design of a  Randomized Controlled Trial. Behavioral Medicine, 27:83-95, 2001.  Abstract  Full Article

Nidich S., Schneider R.H., Nidich R., Rainforth M., Scharf D., Salerno J., Smith D., Dillbeck M., Nader T.  Effect of Maharishi Vedic Vibration Technology on Chronic Disorders and Associated Quality of Life.  Frontiers in Bioscience, 6:h1-h6, 2001. Abstract

Nader T., Smith D., Dillbeck M., Schanbacher V., Dillbeck S., Gallois P., Beall-Rougerie S., Schneider R.H., Nidich S., Kaplan G., Belok S.  A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial of Maharishi Vedic Vibration Technology in Subjects With Arthritis. Frontiers in Bioscience, 6:h7-h17, 2001. Abstract

Nader T., Rothenberg S., Averbach R., Charles B., Fields J., Schneider R.H.  Improvements in Chronic Diseases With a Comprehensive Natural Medicine Approach:  A Review and Case Series.  Behavioral Medicine, 26(I):34-46, 2000. Abstract   Free Article

Castillo‑Richmond A., Schneider R.H., Alexander C., Cook R., Meyers H., Haney C., Rainforth M., Salerno J.  Effects of Stress Reduction and Carotid Atherosclerosis in Hypertensive African Americans. Stroke, 31:568-573, 2000. Full Article

Calderon R., Schneider R.H., Alexander C., Meyers H. Stress, Stress Reduction and Hypercholesterolemia in African Americans. Ethnicity and Disease, 9:451-462, 1999. Abstract

Schneider R.H., Nidich S., Salerno J., Sharma H., Robinson C., Nidich R., Alexander C. Lower Lipid Peroxide Levels in Practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation Program. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60:38‑41, 1998. Full Article

Schneider R.H., Charles B., Sands D., Grace D., Averbach R., Rothenberg S. The Significance of the Maharishi Vedic Approach to Health for Modern Health Care and Medical Education.  Modern Science and Vedic Science, 7(1):299‑315, 1997.

MacLean C., Walton K., Wenneberg S., Levitsky D., Mandarino J., Waziri R., Hillis S., Schneider R.H.  Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program Adaptive Mechanisms:  Altered Endocrine Responses to Stress After Four Months of Practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 22(4):277‑295, 1997. Abstract

Barnes V., Schneider R.H., Alexander C. Stress, Stress Reduction and Hypertension in African Americans:  An Updated Review. Journal of the National Medical Association, 89(7):464‑476, 1997. Full Article

Wenneberg S.R., Schneider R.H., Walton K.G., MacLean C., Levitsky D., Mandarino J., Rainforth M., Salerno J., Waziri R., Wallace R.K. A Controlled Study of the Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Reactivity.  International Journal of Neuroscience, 89:15‑28, 1997. Abstract

Wenneberg S.R., Schneider R.H., Walton K.G., MacLean C., Levitsky D., Mandarino J., Waziri R., Wallace R.K. Anger Expression Correlates with Platelet Aggregation. Behavioral Medicine, 22:174‑177, 1997. Abstract

Alexander C.N., Schneider R.H., Claybourne M., Sheppard W., Staggers F., Rainforth M., Salerno J., Kondwani K., Smith S., Walton K.G., Egan B.  A Trial of Stress Reduction for Hypertension in Older African Americans II. Sex and Risk Subgroup Analysis.  Hypertension, 28(2): 228‑237, 1996. Full Article

Zamarra J.W., Schneider R.H., Besseghini I., Robinson D., Salerno J. Usefulness of the Transcendental Meditation Program in the Treatment of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease. American Journal of Cardiology, 77:867‑870, 1996. Abstract

Herron R.E., Schneider R.H., Mandarino J.V., Alexander C.N., Walton K.G.  Cost‑Effective Hypertension Management: Comparison of Drug Therapies With an Alternative Program. Journal of Managed Care, 2(4):427‑437, 1996. 

Schneider R.H., Staggers F., Alexander C.N., Sheppard W., Rainforth M., Kondwani K., Smith S., King C. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Stress Reduction for Hypertension in Older African Americans.  Hypertension, 26:820‑827, 1995. Full Article

MacLean C., Walton K.G., Wenneberg S., Levitsky D., Mandarino J., Waziri R., Schneider R.H. Altered Responses of Cortisol, GH, TSH and Testosterone to Acute Stress after Four Months’ Practice of Transcendental Meditation (TM).  Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 746:381‑384, 1994.

Alexander C.N., Robinson P., Orme‑Johnson D., Schneider R.H., Walton K. Effects of Transcendental Meditation Compared to Other Methods of Relaxation and Meditation in Reducing Risk Factors, Morbidity, and Mortality. Homeostasis, 35 (4‑5): 243‑264, 1994.

Schneider R.H., Alexander C.N., Wallace R.K. In Search of an Optimal Behavioral Treatment for Hypertension: A Review and Focus on Transcendental Meditation, in Johnson E.H., Gentry W.D., Julius S. (Eds.), Personality, Elevated Blood Pressure, and Essential Hypertension. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing Corporation, 291‑318, 1992.

Schneider R.H., Cavanaugh K., Rothenberg S., Averbach R., Robinson D., Wallace R.K. Health Promotion With a Traditional System of Natural Medicine:  Maharishi Ayur‑Veda.  Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5 (3):1‑27, 1990.

Mills P.M., Schneider R.H., Hill D., Walton K., Wallace R.K. Beta Adrenergic Receptor Sensitivity in Transcendental Meditation Practitioners and Controls. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34 (1):29‑33, 1990. Abstract

Mills P.J., Schneider R.H., Dimsdale J.  Anger Assessment and Reactivity to Stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 33 (3): 379‑382, 1989. Abstract

Schneider R.H., Cavanaugh W., Boncheff S. Cost Reductions Through Better Health:  Transcendental Meditation Program Cuts Costs in Half. Business and Health, 4(1):39‑42, 1986.

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